All About Magnetism

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Process of aligning the elementary magnetic areas by an external magnetic field.

Isotropic Magnets

Isotropic magnets may be magnetized in all directions with the identical magnetic features.

Anisotropic Magnets

In the production process, a preferential direction is applied to anisotropic magnets by using an external magnetic field. In a magnetizing process following later, the maximum magnetic values are obtained in this direction.

Hysteresis loop:

Describes the function between magnetic flux density B or magnetization M, and magnetic field strength H, at a magnetization cycle characterized by positive and negative extreme values. A hysteresis loop does not represent a definite functional connection between B, or M, and H, but separates into two different branches for a rising and falling magnetic field. It occurs with ferra magnets, but not with dia magnets ore paramagnets.   Magnetism Hysteresis Loop

Energy Product (B x H)

Product of flux density B and field strength H in the second quadrant of the demagnetizing- curve. The energy product has a maximum (BH)max between the points Br and BHc. The maximum energy product may be defined as maximum stored magnetic energy and serves as material constant when assessing permanent magnetic components   Magnetic Energy Products

Demagnetizing Curve

Part of the hysterisis loop within the second quadrant of the coordinate system (B respectively M positive, H negative). By measuring the demagnetizing curve, the most important magnetic features are determined.

Field Strength (magnetic) H

Signifies value and direction of a magnetic field and may be defined in various ways. For example: The potential energy of a small permanent magnet with magnetic moment m within the magnetic field H is provided by:

Flux (magnetic)

Product from flux density B x area F, interspersed by the magnetic field. Unit: 1 Vs = 1 Weber (Wb).

Flux Density (magnetic) B

Describes the strength of the magnetic field as H does. Whereas, outside magnetizable matter, B and H differ only by a constant factor, B accounts for the influence of the magnetisation within such materials.
Unit: 1 Vs/m² = Wb/m² = 104 G = 1 T
Most common are the units
1 T = 104 G und 1 mT = 10 G


Formerly common unit of the magnetic flux density.

Coercive Field Force Hc

There is distinction between the coercive field force BHc, the flux density, and the coercive field force IHc of the polarisation. The coercive field force BHc (in the case of the closed magnetic circle) is defined as demagnetized field strength required for the removal of the flux density B. The coercive field force IHc is the demagnetized field strength whereby the polarisation I becomes zero. Thus, by applying IHc, a body becomes non-magnetic. Practically speaking, all materials with high permeability are magnetic, mainly iron, nickel, cobalt, and their alloys.
All other materials are non-magnetic (brass, copper, wood, stone etc.).
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